1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Vol 15/Table of contributors


A. A. M. Arthur Anthony Macdonell, M.A., Ph.D.
Boden Professor of Sanskrit in the University of Oxford. Keeper of the Indian Institute. Fellow of Balliol College; Fellow of the British Academy. Author of A Vedic Grammar ; A History of Sanskrit Literature; Vedic Mythology; &c.
A. B. D. Rev. Andrew B. Davidson, D.D.
See the biographical article: Davidson, A. B.
Job (in part).
A. C. S. Algernon Charles Swinburne.
See the biographical article: Swinburne, A. C.
Keats (in part).
A. D. Henry Austin Dobson, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Dobson, H. Austin.
Kauffmann, Angelica.
A. E. S. Arthur Everett Shipley, M.A., F.R.S., D.Sc.
Master of Christ's College, Cambridge. Reader in Zoology, Cambridge University. Joint-editor of the Cambridge Natural History.
A. F. P. Albert Frederick Pollard, M.A., F.R.Hist.Soc.
Professor of English History in the University of London. Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford. Assistant Editor of the Dictionary of National Biography, 1893–1901. Lothian Prizeman (Oxford), 1892; Arnold prizeman, 1898. Author of England under the Protector Somerset ; Henry VIII.; Life of Thomas Cranmer; &c.
Jewel, John.
A. G. Major Arthur George Frederick Griffiths (d. 1908).
H.M. Inspector of Prisons, 1878–1896. Author of The Chronicles of Newgate; Secrets of the Prison House; &c.
Juvenile Offenders (in part).
A. Go.* Rev. Alexander Gordon, M.A.
Lecturer on Church History in the University of Manchester.
A. G. D. Arthur George Doughty, C.M.G., M.A., Litt.D., F.R.S. (Canada), F.R.Hist.S
Dominion Archivist of Canada. Member of the Geographical Board of Canada. Author of The Cradle of New France; &c. Joint-editor of Documents relating to the Constitutional History of Canada.
Joly de Lotbinière.
A. H. S. Rev. Archibald Henry Sayce, Litt.D., LL.D.
See the biographical article: Sayce, A. H.
A. H.-S. Sir A. Houtum-Schindler, C.I.E.
General in the Persian Army. Author of Eastern Persian Irak.
Karun; Kerman;
; Kishm.
A. H. Sm. Arthur Hamilton Smith, M.A., F.S.A.
Keeper of the Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities in the British Museum. Member of the Imperial German Archaeological Institute. Author of Catalogue of Greek Sculpture in the British Museum; &c.
A. M. C. Agnes Mary Clerke.
See the biographical article: Clerke, A. M.
A. Ml. Alfred Ogle Maskell, F.S.A.
Superintendent of the Picture Galleries, Indian and Colonial Exhibition, 1887. Cantor Lecturer, 1906. Founder and first editor of the Downside Review. Author of Ivories; &c.
A. N. Alfred Newton, F.R.S.
See the biographical article: Newton, Alfred.
Jabiru; Jacamar; Jaçaná; Jackdaw; Jay; Kakapo; Kestrel; Killdeer; King-Bird; Kingfisher; Kinglet;
; Kiwi; Knot.
A. T. I. Alexander Taylor Innes, M.A., LL.D.
Scotch advocate. Author of John Knox; Law of Creeds in Scotland; Studies in Scottish History; &c.
Knox, John.
A. W. H.* Arthur William Holland.
Formerly Scholar of St John’s College, Oxford. Bacon Scholar of Gray’s Inn, 1900.
A. W. W. Adolphus William Ward, LL.D., D.Litt.
See the biographical article: Ward, A. W.
Jonson, Ben.
B. F. S. B.-P. Major Baden F. S. Baden-Powell, F.R.A.S., F.R.Met.S.
Inventor of man-lifting kites. Formerly President of Aeronautical Society. Author of Ballooning as a Sport; War in Practice; &c.
Kite-flying (in part).
B. W. B. Rev. Benjamin Wisner Bacon, A.M., D.D., Litt.D., LL.D.f
Professor of New Testament Criticism and Exegesis in Yale University. Formerly Director of American School of Archaeology, Jerusalem. Author of The Fourth Gospel in Research and Debate; The Founding of the Church; &c.
James, Epistle of;
Jude, The General Epistle of
C. D. G. Rev. Christian David Ginsburg, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Ginsburg, C. D.
Kabbalah (in part).
C. El. Sir Charles Norton Edgcumbe Eliot, K.C.M.G., C.B., M.A., LL.D., D.C.L.
Vice-Chancellor of Sheffield University. Formerly Fellow of Trinity College Oxford. H.M.’s Commissioner and Commander-in-Chief for the British East Africa Protectorate; Agent and Consul-General at Zanzibar; Consul-General for German East Africa, 1900–1904.
Kashgar (in part);
 (in part);
 (in part).
C. E. D. B. C. E. D. Black.
Formerly Clerk for Geographical Records, India Office, London.
Kashgar (in part).
C. H. Ha. Carlton Huntley Hayes, A.M., Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City. Member of the American Historical Association.
John XXI.; Julius II.
C. H. T.* Crawford Howell Toy.
See the biographical article: Toy, Crawford Howell.
Job (in part).
C. J. J. Charles Jasper Joly, F.R.S., F.R.A.S. (1864–1906).
Royal Astronomer of Ireland, and Andrews Professor of Astronomy in the University of Dublin, 1897–1906. Fellow of Trinity College, Dublin. Secretary of the Royal Irish Academy.
C. J. L. Sir Charles James Lyall, K.C.S.I., C I.E., LL.D. (Edin.).
Secretary, Judicial and Public Department, India Office. Fellow of King’s College, London. Secretary to Government of India in Home Department, 1889–1894. Chief Commissioner, Central Provinces, India, 1895–1898. Author of Translations of Ancient Arabic Poetry; &c.
C. L. K. Charles Lethbridge Kingsford, M.A., F.R.Hist.Soc., F.S.A.
Assistant Secretary to the Board of Education. Author of Life of Henry V. Editor of Chronicles of London, and Stow’s Survey of London.
C. Mi. Chedomille Mijatovich.
Senator of the Kingdom of Servia. Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the King of Servia to the Court of St James’s, 1895–1900, and 1902–1903.
C. M. W. Sir Charles Moore Watson, K.C.M.G., C.B.
Colonel, Royal Engineers. Deputy-Inspector-General of Fortifications, 1896–1902. Served under General Gordon in the Sudan, 1874–1875.
Jerusalem (in part).
C. R. B. Charles Raymond Beazley, M.A., D.Litt., F.R.G.S., F.R.Hist.S.
Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow of Merton College, Oxford, and University Lecturer in the History of Geography. Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1889. Lowell Lecturer, Boston, 1908. Author of Henry the Navigator; The Dawn of Modern Geography; &c.
C. S. C. Caspar Stanley Clark.
Assistant in Indian Section, Victoria and Albert Museum, South Kensington.
Kashi (in part).
C. We. Cecil Weatherly.
Formerly Scholar of Queen’s College, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple.
Knighthood: Orders of.
C. W. W. Sir Charles William Wilson, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., F.R.S. (1836–1907).
Major-General, Royal Engineers. Secretary to the North American Boundary Commission, 1858–1862. British Commissioner on the Servian Boundary Commission. Director-General of the Ordnance Survey, 1886–1894. Director-General of Military Education, 1895–1898. Author of From Korti to Khartoum; Life of Lord Clive; &c.
Jerusalem (in part);
 (in part);
 (in part).
D. G. H. David George Hogarth, M.A.
Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Fellow of the British Academy. Excavated at Paphos, 1888; Naucratis, 1899 and 1903; Ephesus, 1904–1905; Assiut, 1906–1907. Director, British School at Athens, 1897–1900. Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899.
Jebeil; Jordan (in part); Karamania;
; Konia.
D. H. David Hannay.
Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. Author of Short History of the Royal Navy, 1217–1688; Life of Emilia Castelar; &c.
Junius; Kanaris;
Keith, Viscount
Keppel, Viscount
E. B. Edward Breck, M.A., Ph.D.
Formerly Foreign Correspondent of the New York Herald and the New York Times. Author of Fencing; Wilderness Pets; Sporting in Nova Scotia; &c.
Kite-flying (in part).
E. Br. Ernest Barker, M.A.
Fellow and Lecturer in Modern History, St John’s College, Oxford. Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Merton College. Craven Scholar, 1895.
Jordanes (in part).
E. F. S. Edward Fairbrother Strange.
Assistant Keeper, Victoria and Albert Museum, South Kensington. Member of Council, Japan Society. Author of numerous works on art subjects; Joint-editor of Bell’s “Cathedral” Series.
Japan: Art (in part);
Korin, Ogata
Kyosai, Sho-Fu
E. G. Edmund Gosse, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Gosse, Edmund.
Jacobsen, Jens Peter; Kalewala; Kyd, Thomas.
E. Gr. Ernest Arthur Gardner, M.A.
See the biographical article: Gardner, Percy.
E. He. Edward Heawood, M.A.
Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Librarian of the Royal Geographical Society, London.
Kenya; Kilimanjaro.
E. H. B. Sir Edward Herbert Bunbury, Bart., M.A., F.R.G.S. (d. 1895).
M.P. for Bury St Edmunds, 1847–1852. Author of A History of Ancient Geography; &c.
Italy: Geography (in part).
E. H. M. Ellis Hovell Minns, M.A.
University Lecturer in Palaeography, Cambridge. Lecturer and Assistant Librarian at Pembroke College, Cambridge. Formerly Fellow of Pembroke College.
Iyrcae; Kashubes.
Ed. M. Eduard Meyer, Ph.D., D.Litt. (Oxon.), LL.D.
Professor of Ancient History in the University of Berlin. Author of Geschichte des Alterthums; Geschichte des alten Aegyptens; Die Israeliten und ihre Nachbarstämme.
E. O.* Edmund Owen, M.B., F.R.C.S., LL.D., D.Sc.
Consulting Surgeon to St Mary’s Hospital, London, and to the Children’s Hospital, Great Ormond Street; late Examiner in Surgery in the Universities of Cambridge, Durham and London. Author of A Manual of Anatomy for Senior Students.
Joints: Diseases and Injuries; Kidney Diseases (in part).
E. Tn. Rev. Ethelred Luke Taunton, S.J. (d. 1907).
Author of The English Black Monks of St Benedict; History of the Jesuits in England.
Jesuits (in part).
F. By. Captain Frank Brinkley, R.N.
Foreign Adviser to Nippon Yusen Kaisha, Tokyo. Correspondent of The Times in Japan. Editor of the Japan Mail. Formerly Professor of Mathematics at Imperial Engineering College, Tokyo. Author of Japan; &c.
F. C. C. Frederick Cornwallis Conybeare, M.A., D.Th. (Giessen).
Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Fellow of University College, Oxford. Author of The Ancient Armenian Texts of Aristotle; Myth, Magic and Morals; &c.
Jacobite Church.
F. G. M. B. Frederick George Meeson Beck, M.A.
Fellow and Lecturer in Classics, Clare College, Cambridge.
Kent, Kingdom of.
F. G. P. Frederick Gymer Parsons, F.R.C.S., F.Z.S., F.R.Anthrop.Inst.
Vice-President, Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Lecturer on Anatomy at St Thomas’s Hospital and the London School of Medicine for Women. Formerly Hunterian Professor at the Royal College of Surgeons.
Joints: Anatomy.
F. L. L. Lady Lugard.
See the biographical article: Lugard, Sir F. J. D.
Kano; Katagum.
F. Ll. G. Francis Llewellyn Griffith, M.A., Ph.D. (Leipzig), F.S.A.
Reader in Egyptology, Oxford University. Editor of the Archaeological Survey and Archaeological Reports of the Egypt Exploration Fund. Fellow of Imperial German Archaeological Institute.
F. R. C. Frank R. Cana.
Author of South Africa from the Great Trek to the Union.
Fr. Sy. Friedrich Schwally.
Professor of Semitic Philology in the University of Giessen.
Koran (in part).
F. S. P. Francis Samuel Philbrick, A.M., Ph.D.
Formerly Teaching Fellow of Nebraska State University, and Scholar and Fellow of Harvard University. Member of American Historical Association.
Jefferson, Thomas.
F. v. H. Baron Friedrich von Hügel.
Member of Cambridge Philological Society; Member of Hellenic Society. Author of The Mystical Element of Religion; &c.
John: The Apostle;
John, Gospel of St
F. W. B.* Frederick William Rudler, I.S.O., F.G.S.
Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London, 1879–1902. President of the Geologists' Association, 1887–1889.
Jade; Jargoon;
; Kaolin.
G. A. Gr. George Abraham Grierson, C.I.E., Ph.D., D.Litt.
Member of the Indian Civil Service, 1873–1903. In charge of the Linguistic Survey of India, 1898–1902. Gold Medallist, Royal Asiatic Society, 1909. Vice-President of the Royal Asiatic Society. Formerly Fellow of Calcutta University. Author of The Languages of India; &c.
G. E. Rev. George Edmundson, M.A., F.R.Hist.S.
Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Brasenose College, Oxford. Ford’s Lecturer, 1909. Hon. Member, Dutch Historical Society, and Foreign Member, Netherlands Association of Literature.
G. F. Mo. Rev. George Foot Moore.
See the biographical article: Moore, George Foot.
G. G. Co. George Gordon Coulton, M.A.
Birkbeck Lecturer in Ecclesiastical History, Trinity College, Cambridge. Author of Medieval Studies; Chaucer and his England; From St Francis to Dante; &c.
Knighthood and Chivalry.
G. H. Bo. Rev. George Herbert Box, M.A.
Rector of Sutton Sandy, Beds. Formerly Hebrew Master, Merchant Taylors School, London. Lecturer in Faculty of Theology, University of Oxford, 1908–1909. Author of Translation of Book of Isaiah; &c.
John the Baptist;
Joseph (New Testament)
; Jubilee, Year of (in part).
G. K. Gustav Krüger.
Professor of Church History in the University of Giessen. Author of Das Papsttum; &c.
Justin Martyr.
G. Mi. Rev. George Milligan, D.D.
Professor of Divinity and Biblical Criticism in the University of Glasgow. Author of The Theology of the Epistle to the Hebrews; Lectures from the Greek Papyri; &c.
James (New Testament);
Judas Iscariot
G. Sa. George Saintsbury, LL.D., D.C.L.
See the biographical article: Saintsbury, G. E. B.
G. S. L. George Somes Layard.
Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. Author of Charles Keene; Shirley Brooks; &c.
Keene, Charles S.
G. S. R. Sir George Scott Robertson, K.C.S.I., D.C.L., M.P.
Formerly British Agent in Gilgit. Author of The Kafirs of the Hindu Kush; Chitral: the Story of a Minor Siege. M.P. Central Division, Bradford.
G. W. T. Rev. Griffithes Wheeler Thatcher, M.A., B.D.
Warden of Camden College, Sydney, N.S.W. Formerly Tutor in Hebrew and Old Testament History at Mansfield College, Oxford.
Jarīr Ibn ʽAtīyya ul-Khatfī
; Jauharī; Jawālīqī; Jurjānī; Khalīl Ibn Aḥmad; Khansā; Kindī; Kumait Ibn Zaid.
H. A. W. Hugh Alexander Webster.
Formerly Librarian of University of Edinburgh. Editor of the Scottish Geographical Magazine.
Java (in part).
H. Ch. Hugh Chisholm, M.A.
Formerly Scholar of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Editor of the 11th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica; Co-editor of the 10th edition.
Joan of Arc (in part).
H. Cl. Sir Hugh Charles Clifford, K.C.M.G.
Colonial Secretary, Ceylon. Fellow of the Royal Colonial Institute. Formerly Resident, Pahang. Colonial Secretary, Trinidad and Tobago, 1903–1907. Author of Studies in Brown Humanity; Further India; &c. Joint-author of A Dictionary of the Malay Language.
H. C. H. Horace Carter Hovey, A.M., D.D.
Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Geological Society of America, National Geographic Society and Societe de Speleologie (France) Author of Celebrated American Caverns; Handbook of Mammoth Cave of Kentucky; &c.
Jacobs Cavern.
H. C. R. Sir Henry Creswicke Rawlinson, Bart.
See the biographical article: Rawlinson, Sir H. C.
Kūrdistān (in part).
H. De. Hippolyte Delehaye, S.J.
Assistant in the compilation of the Bollandist publications: Analecta Bollandiana and Acta sanctorum.
Januarius, St;
Kilian, St
H. M. C. Hector Munro Chadwick, M.A.
Librarian and Fellow of Clare College, Cambridge. Reader in Scandinavian, Cambridge University. Author of Studies on Anglo-Saxon Institutions.
H. M. R. Hugh Munro Ross.
Formerly Exhibitioner of Lincoln College, Oxford. Editor of The Times Engineering Supplement. Author of British Railways.
Kelvin, Lord.
H. M. V. Herbert M. Vaughan, F.S.A.
Keble College, Oxford. Author of The Last of the Royal Stuarts; The Medici Popes; The Last Stuart Queen.
James: the Pretender;
King’s Evil
H. O. Hermann Oelsner, M.A., Ph.D.
Taylorian Professor of the Romance Languages in University of Oxford. Member of Council of the Philological Society. Author of A History of Provencal Literature; &c.
Italy: Literature (in part).
H. W. C. D. Henry William Carless Davis, M.A.
Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College, Oxford. Fellow of All Souls’ College, Oxford, 1895–1902. Author of England under the Normans and Angevins; Charlemagne.
John, King of England;
John of Hexham
H. W. S. H. Wickham Steed.
Correspondent of The Times at Vienna. Correspondent of The Times at Rome, 1897–1902.
Italy: History (F.).
H. Y. Sir Henry Yule, K.C.S.I., C.B.
See the biographical article: Yule, Sir Henry.
Kublai Khan.
I. A. Israel Abrahams, M.A.
Reader in Talmudic and Rabbinic Literature in the University of Cambridge. Formerly President, Jewish Historical Society of England. Author of A Short History of Jewish Literature; Jewish Life in the Middle Ages; Judaism; &c.
Jacob ben Asher;
: Dispersion to Modern Times;
Joḥanan ben Zaccai
; Kalisch, Marcus;
I. L. B. Isabella L. Bishop.
See the biographical article: Bishop, Isabella.
Korea (in part).
J. A. H. John Allen Howe.
Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London. Author of The Geology of Building Stones.
Joints (Geology);
; Keuper;
J. A. R. Very Rev. Joseph Armitage Robinson, D.D.
Dean of Westminster. Fellow of the British Academy. Hon. Fellow of Christ’s College, Cambridge, and Norrisian Professor of Divinity in the University. Author of Some Thoughts on the Incarnation; &c.
Jesus Christ.
J. A. S. John Addington Symonds, LL.D.
See the biographical article, Symonds, John Addington.
Italy: History (C.).
J. Br. Right Hon. James Bryce, D.C.L., D.Litt.
See the biographical article: Bryce, James.
Justinian I.
J. Bt. James Bartlett.
Lecturer on Construction, Architecture, Sanitation, Quantities, &c., at King’s College, London. Member of Society of Architects. Member of Institute of Junior Engineers.
J. B. A. Joseph Beavington Atkinson.
Formerly art-critic of the Saturday Review. Author of An Art Tour in the Northern Capitals of Europe; Schools of Modern Art in Germany.
J. F.-K. James Fitzmaurice-Kelly, Litt.D., F.R.Hist.S.
Gilmour Professor of Spanish Language and Literature, Liverpool University. Norman McColl Lecturer, Cambridge University. Fellow of the British Academy. Member of the Royal Spanish Academy. Knight Commander of the Order of Alphonso XII. Author of A History of Spanish Literature; &c.
Juan Manuel, Don.
J. G. C. A. John George Clark Anderson, M.A.
Censor and Tutor of Christ Church, Oxford. Formerly Fellow of Lincoln College; Craven Fellow, Oxford, 1896. Conington Prizeman, 1893.
J. G. Sc. Sir James George Scott, K.C.I.E.
Superintendent and Political Officer, Southern Shan States. Author of Burma; The Upper Burma Gazetteer.
; Kēng Tūng.
J. Hn. Justus Hashagen, Ph.D.
Privatdozent in Medieval and Modern History, University of Bonn. Author of Das Rheinland unter die franzosische Herrschaft.
John, King of Saxony.
J. H. A. H. John Henry Arthur Hart, M.A.
Fellow, Theological Lecturer and Librarian, St John’s College, Cambridge.
Jews: Greek Domination; Josephus.
J. H. F. John Henry Freese, M.A.
Formerly Fellow of St John’s College, Cambridge.
Janus; Julian (in part).
J. H. R. John Horace Round, M.A., LL.D. (Edin.).
Author of Feudal England; Studies in Peerage and Family History; Peerage and Pedigree.
J. Hl. R. John Holland Rose, M.A., Litt.D.
Lecturer on Modern History to the Cambridge University Local Lectures Syndicate. Author of Life of Napoleon I.; Napoleonic Studies; The Development of the European Nations; The Life of Pitt; &c.
Italy: History (D.);
J. Ja. Joseph Jacobs, Litt.D.
Professor of English Literature in the Jewish Theological Seminary, New York. Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England. Corresponding Member of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid. Author of Jews of Angevin England; Studies in Biblical Archaeology; &c.
Jew, The Wandering.
J. J. L.* Rev. John James Lias, M.A.
Chancellor of Llandaff Cathedral. Formerly Hulsean Lecturer in Divinity and Lady Margaret Preacher, University of Cambridge.
Ketteler, Baron von.
J. Mt. James Moffatt, M.A., D.D.
Jowett Lecturer, London, 1907. Author of Historical New Testament; &c.
John, Epistles of.
J. N. K. John Neville Keynes, M.A., D.Sc.
Registrary of the University of Cambridge. University Lecturer in Moral Science. Secretary to the Local Examinations and Lectures Syndicate. Formerly Fellow of Pembroke College. Author of Studies and Exercises in Formal Logic; &c.
Jevons, William Stanley.
J. P. P. John Percival Postgate, M.A., Litt.D.
Professor of Latin in the University of Liverpool. Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Fellow of the British Academy. Editor of the Classical Quarterly. Editor-in-Chief of the Corpus Poetarum Latinorum; &c.
Juvenal (in part).
J. P. Pe. Rev. John Punnett Peters, Ph.D., D.D.
Canon Residentiary, P. E. Cathedral of New York. Formerly Professor of Hebrew in the University of Pennsylvania. Director of the University Expedition to Babylonia, 1888–1895. Author of Nippur, or Explorations and Adventures on the Euphrates.
J. R. B. John Rose Bradford, M.D., D.Sc., F.R.C.P., F.R.S.
Physician to University College Hospital. Professor of Materia Medica and Therapeutics, University College, London. Secretary of the Royal Society. Formerly Member of Senate, University of London.
Kidney Diseases (in part).
J. T. Be. John Thomas Bealby.
Joint-author of Stanford’s Europe. Formerly Editor of the Scottish Geographical Magazine. Translator of Sven Hedin’s Through Asia, Central Asia and Tibet; &c.
Kalmuck; Kaluga;
; Kara-Kum;
; Kazañ; Kerch;
; Khiva; Khokand; Khotan; Kiev;
; Kubañ;
; Kursk; Kutais.
J. T. S.* James Thomson Shotwell, Ph.D.
Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City.
Joan of Arc (in part).
J. V.* Jules Viard.
Archivist at the National Archives, Paris. Officer of Public Instruction. Author of La France sous Philippe VI. de Valois; &c.
Jacquerie, The.
J. W. He. James Wycliffe Headlam, M.A.
Staff Inspector of Secondary Schools under the Board of Education. Formerly Fellow of King’s College, Cambridge. Professor of Greek and Ancient History at Queen’s College, London. Author of Bismarck and the Foundation of the German Empire; &c.
K. Baron Dairoku Kikuchi, M.A., D.Sc., LL.D.
President of the Imperial University of Kyoto. President of Imperial Academy of Japan. Emeritus Professor, Imperial University, Tokio. Author of Japanese Education; &c.
Japan: The Claim of Japan.
K. S. Kathleen Schlesinger.
Editor of the Portfolio of Musical Archaeology. Author of The Instruments of the Orchestra; &c.
Jew’s Harp; Kettledrum; Keyboard.
L. Count Lützow, Litt.D. (Oxon.), D.Ph. (Prague), F.R.G.S.
Chamberlain of H.M. the Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia. Hon. Member of the Royal Society of Literature. Member of the Bohemian Academy, &c. Author of Bohemia, a Historical Sketch; The Historians of Bohemia (Ilchester Lecture, Oxford, 1904); The Life and Times of John Hus; &c.
Jerome of Prague.
L. F. V.-H. Leveson Francis Vernon-Harcourt, M.A., M.Inst.C.E. (1839–1907).
Formerly Professor of Civil Engineering at University College, London. Author of Rivers and Canals; Harbours and Docks; Civil Engineering as applied in Construction; &c.
L. J. S. Leonard James Spencer, M.A.
Assistant in the Department of Mineralogy, British Museum. Formerly Scholar of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and Harkness Scholar. Editor of the Mineralogical Magazine.
L. C. Rev. Lewis Campbell, D.C.L., LL.D.
See the biographical article: Campbell, Lewis.
L. D.* Louis Duchesne.
See the biographical article: Duchesne, L. M. O.
John XIX.;
Julius I.
L. V.* Luigi Villari.
Italian Foreign Office (Emigration Department). Formerly Newspaper Correspondent in east of Europe. Italian Vice-Consul in New Orleans, 1906; Philadelphia, 1907; Boston, U.S.A., 1907–1910. Author of Italian Life in Town and Country; Fire and Sword in the Caucasus; &c.
Italy: History (E. and G.).
M. Lord Macaulay.
See the biographical article: Macaulay, Baron.
Johnson, Samuel.
M. Br. Margaret Bryant.
Keats (in part).
M. F. Sir Michael Foster, K.C.B., D.C.L., D.Sc., LL.D., F.R.S.
See the biographical article: Foster, Sir M.
M. M. Bh. Sir Mancherjee Merwanjee Bhownagree.
Fellow of Bombay University. M.P. for N.E. Bethnal Green, 1895–1906. Author of History of the Constitution of the East India Company; &c.
M. O. B. C. Maximilian Otto Bismarck Caspari, M.A.
Reader in Ancient History at London University. Lecturer in Greek at Birmingham University, 1905–1908.
Justin II.
M. P.* Leon Jacques Maxime Prinet.
Formerly Archivist to the French National Archives. Auxiliary of the Institute of France (Academy of Moral and Political Sciences).
Joinville (Family);
Juge, Boffille de
N. M. Norman McLean, M.A.
Lecturer in Aramaic, Cambridge University. Fellow and Hebrew Lecturer, Christ’s College, Cambridge. Joint-editor of the larger Cambridge Septuagint.
Jacob of Edessa;
Jacob of Sĕrūgh
Joshua the Stylite
N. V. Joseph Marie Noel Valois.
Member of Academie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, Paris. Honorary Archivist at the Archives Nationales. Formerly President of the Société de l’Histoire de France and the Société de l’École de Chartes. Author of La France et le grand schisme d’Occident; &c.
O. H.* Otto Hehner, F.I.C., F.C.S.
Public Analyst. Formerly President of Society of Public Analysts. Vice President of Institute of Chemistry of Great Britain and Ireland, Author of works on butter analysis; Alcohol Tables; &c.
Jams and Jellies.
O. J. R. H. Osbert John Radcliffe Howarth, M.A.
Christ Church, Oxford. Geographical Scholar, 1901. Assistant Secretary of the British Association.
Java (in part);
 (in part).
P. A. Paul Daniel Alphandéry.
Professor of the History of Dogma, École pratique des Hautes Etudes, Sorbonne, Paris. Author of Les Idées morales chez les heterodoxes latines au debut du XIIIe siècle.
Joachim of Floris;
John XXII.
P. A. A. Philip A. Ashworth, M.A., Doc.Juris.
New College, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. Translator of H. R. von Gneist’s History of the English Constitution.
P. A. K. Prince Peter Alexeivitch Kropotkin.
See the biographical article: Kropotkin, P. A.
Kalmuck; Kaluga;
; Kara-Kum;
; Kerch; Khingan;
; Kiev; Kronstadt; Kubañ; Kuen-Lun;
; Kutais.
P. Gi. Peter Giles, M.A., LL.D., Litt.D.
Fellow and Classical Lecturer of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and University Reader in Comparative Philology. Formerly Secretary of the Cambridge Philological Society. Author of Manual of Comparative Philology.
P. G. T. Peter Guthrie Tait.
See the biographical aracle: Tait, Peter Guthrie.
P. La. Philip Lake, M.A., F.G.S.
Lecturer on Physical and Regional Geography in Cambridge Universitv. Formerly of the Geological Survey of India. Author of Monograph of British Cambrian Trilobites. Translator and Editor of Kayser’s Comparative Geology.
Japan: Geology.
P. L. G. Philip Lyttelton Gell, M.A.
Sometime Scholar of Balliol College, Oxford. Secretary to the Clarendon Press Oxford, 1884–1897. Fellow of King’s College, London.
Khazars (in part).
P. Vi. Paul Vinogradoff, D.C.L., LL.D.
See the biographical article: Vinogradoff, Paul.
Jurisprudence, Comparative.
R. A.* Robert Anchel.
Archivist to the Département de l’Eure.
R. Ad. Robert Adamson, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Adamson, Robert.
Kant (in part).
R. A. S. M. Robert Alexander Stewart Macalister, M.A., F.S.A.
St John’s College, Cambridge. Director of Excavations for the Palestine Exploration Fund.
R. A. W. Robert Alexander Wahab, C.B., C.M.G., C.I.E.
Colonel, Royal Engineers. Formerly H.M. Commissioner, Aden Boundary Delimitation, and Superintendent, Survey of India. Served with Tirah Expeditionary Force, 1897–1898; Anglo-Russian Boundary Commission, Pamirs, 1895; &c.
R. F. L. Rev. Richard Frederick Littledale, M.A., LL.D., D.C.L. (1833–1890).
Author of Religious Communities of Women in the Early Church; Catholic Ritual in the Church of England; Why Ritualists do not become Roman Catholics.
Jesuits (in part).
R. G. Richard Garnett, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Garnett, Richard.
R. H. C. Rev. Robert Henry Charles, M.A., D.D., D.Litt. (Oxon.).
Grinfield Lecturer and Lecturer in Biblical Studies, Oxford, and Fellow of Merton College. Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Senior Moderator of Trinity College, Dublin. Author and Editor of Book of Enoch; Book of Jubilees; Assumption of Moses; Ascension of Isaiah; Testaments of the XII. Patriarchs; &c.
Jeremy, Epistle of;
Jubilees, Book of
Judith, The Book of
R. I. P. Reginald Innes Pocock, F.Z.S.
Superintendent of the Zoological Gardens, London.
R. J. M. Ronald John McNeill, M.A.
Christ Church, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. Formerly Editor of the St James’s Gazette, London.
Jeffreys, 1st Baron;
: Family.
R. K. D. Sir Robert Kennaway Douglas.
Formerly Keeper of Oriental Printed Books and MSS. at the British Museum, and Professor of Chinese, King’s College, London. Author of The Language and Literature of China; &c.
Jenghiz Khan;
R. L.* Richard Lydekker, F.R.S., F.G.S., F.Z.S.
Member of the Staff of the Geological Survey of India, 1874–1882. Author of Catalogue of Fossil Mammals, Reptiles and Birds in the British Museum; The Deer of all Lands; The Game Animals of Africa; &c.
 (in part).
R. N. B. Robert Nisbet Bain (d. 1909).
Assistant Librarian, British Museum, 1883–1909. Author of Scandinavia, the Political History of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, 1513–1900; The First Romanovs, 1613–1725; Slavonic Europe, the Political History of Poland and Russia from 1460 to 1796; &c.
Ivan I.-VI.; Jellachich;
John III.
: Sobieski;
Juel, Jens
; Juel, Niels;
; Kemeny, Baron;
; Kollontaj;
; Kosciuszko;
Kurakin, Prince
R. Po. Rene Poupardin, D. ès L.
Secretary of the École des Chartes. Honorary Librarian at the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris. Author of Le Royaume de Provence sous les Carclingiens; Recueil des chartes de Saint-Germain; &c.
John, Duke of Burgundy.
R. P. S. R. Phené Spiers, F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A.
Formerly Master of the Architectural School, Royal Academy, London. Past President of Architectural Association. Associate and Fellow of King’s College, London. Corresponding Member of the Institute of France. Editor of Fergusson’s History of Architecture. Author of Architecture: East and West; &c.
Jacobean Style.
R. S. C. Robert Seymour Conway, M.A., D.Litt. (Cantab.).
Professor of Latin and Indo-European Philology in the University of Manchester. Formerly Professor of Latin in University College, Cardiff; and Fellow of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Author of The Italic Dialects.
Italy: History (A.).
S. A. C. Stanley Arthur Cook, M.A.
Lecturer in Hebrew and Syriac, and formerly Fellow, Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Editor for Palestine Exploration Fund. Examiner in Hebrew and Aramaic, London University, 1904–1908. Author of Glossary of Aramaic Inscriptions; The Laws of Moses and the Code of Hammurabi; Critical Notes on Old Testament History; Religion of Ancient Palestine; &c.
Jacob; Jehoiakim;
; Jehoshaphat;
; Jephthah; Jerahmeel; Jeroboam;
: Old Testament History;
; Joab; Joash;
: Old Testament; Joshua; Josiah; Judah; Judges, Book of;
 (in part); Kenites; Kings, Books of.
St. C. Viscount St Cyres.
See the biographical article: Iddesleigh, 1st Earl of.
S. N. Simon Newcomb, D.Sc., D.C.L.
See the biographical article: Newcomb, Simon.
Jupiter: Satellites.
T. As. Thomas Ashby, M.A., D.Litt. (Oxon.).
Director of British School of Archaeology at Rome. Formerly Scholar of Christ Church, Oxford. Craven Fellow, 1897. Conington Prizeman, 1906. Member of the Imperial German Archaeological Institute.
Italy: Geography and Statistics; History (B.);
T. A. I. Thomas Allan Ingram, M.A., LL.D.
Trinity College, Dublin.
Juvenile Offenders (in part).
T. A. J. Thomas Athol Joyce, M.A.
Assistant in Department of Ethnography, British Museum. Hon. Sec., Royal Anthropological Institute.
T. F. C. Theodore Freylinghuysen Collier, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of History, Williams College, Williamstown, Mass., U.S.A.
Julius III.
T. H. Thomas Hodgkin, D.C.L., LL.D.
See the biographical article: Hodgkin, T.
Jordanes (in part).
T. H. H.* Sir Thomas Hungerford Holdich, K.C.M.G., K.C.I.E., D.Sc., F.R.G.S.
Colonel in the Royal Engineers. Superintendent Frontier Surveys, India, 1892–1898. Gold Medallist, R.G.S. (London), 1887. H.M. Commissioner for the Perso-Beluch Boundary, 1896. Author of The Indian Borderland; The Gates of India; &c.
Kabul; Kalat; Kandahar; Kashmir; Khyber Pass;
; Kushk.
T. K. Thomas Kirkup, M.A., LL.D.
Author of An Inquiry into Socialism; Primer of Socialism; &c.
Julian (in part).
T. K. C. Rev. Thomas Kelly Cheyne, D.D.
See the biographical article: Cheyne, T. K.
Jeremiah; Joel (in part);
Th. N. Theodor Nöldeke, PH.D.
See the biographical article: Nöldeke, Theodor.
Koran (in part).
T. Se. Thomas Seccombe, M.A.
Balliol College, Oxford. Lecturer in History, East London and Birkbeck Colleges, University of London. Stanhope Prizeman, Oxford, 1887. Assistant Editor of Dictionary of National Biography, 1891–1901. Author of The Age of Johnson. Joint-author of Bookman History of English Literature; &c.
Johnson, Samuel.
T. Wo. Thomas Woodhouse.
Head of the Weaving and Textile Designing Department, Technical College, Dundee.
T. W. R. D. Thomas William Rhys Davids, LL.D., PH.D.
Professor of Comparative Religion, Manchester. Professor of Pali and Buddhist Literature, University College, London, 1882–1904. President of the Pali Text Society. Fellow of the British Academy. Secretary and Librarian of Royal Asiatic Society, 1885–1902. Author of Buddhism; Sacred Books of the Buddhists; Early Buddhism; Buddhist India; Dialogues of the Buddha; &c.
W. An. William Anderson, F.R.C.S.
Formerly Chairman of Council of the Japan Society. Author of The Pictorial Arts of Japan; Japanese Wood Engravings; Catalogue of Chinese and Japanese Pictures in the British Museum; &c.
Japan: Art (in part).
W. A. B. C. Rev. William Augustus Brevoort Coolidge, M.A., F.R.G.S., Ph.D. (Bern).
Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Professor of English History, St David’s College, Lampeter, 1880–1881. Author of Guide to Switzerland; The Alps in Nature and in History; &c. Editor of The Alpine Journal, 1880–1889.
Jenatsch, Georg;
W. A. P. Walter Alison Phillips, M.A.
Formerly Exhibitioner of Merton College and Senior Scholar of St John’s College, Oxford. Author of Modern Europe; &c.
Krüdener, Baroness von
W. B.* William Burton, M.A., F.C.S.
Chairman, Joint Committee of Pottery Manufacturers of Great Britain. Author of English Stoneware and Earthenware; &c.
Kashi (in part).
W. Ba. William Bacher, Ph.D.
Professor of Biblical Studies at the Rabbinical Seminary, Buda-Pest.
Jonah, Rabbi; Ḳimḥi.
W. Be. Sir Walter Besant.
See the biographical article: Besant, Sir Walter.
W. F. C. William Feilden Craies, M.A.
Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. Lecturer on Criminal Law at King’s College, London. Editor of Archbold’s Criminal Pleading, 23rd ed.
W. F. D. William Frederick Denning, F.R.A.S.
Gold Medal, R.A.S. President, Liverpool Astronomical Society, 1877–1878. Corresponding Fellow of Royal Astronomical Society of Canada; &c. Author of Telescopic Work for Starlight Evenings; The Great Meteoric Shower; &c.
W. G. William Garnett, M.A., D.C.L.
Educational Adviser to the London County Council. Formerly Fellow and Lecturer of St John’s College, Cambridge. Principal and Professor of Mathematics, Durham College of Science, Newcastle-on-Tyne. Author of Elementary Dynamics; &c.
Kelvin, Lord.
W. G. S. William Graham Sumner.
See the biographical article: Sumner, William Graham.
Jackson, Andrew.
W. H. Be. William Henry Bennett, M.A., D.D., D.Litt. (Cantab.).
Professor of Old Testament Exegesis in New and Hackney Colleges, London. Formerly Fellow of St John’s College, Cambridge. Lecturer in Hebrew at Firth College, Sheffield. Author of Religion of the Post-Exilic Prophets; &c.
W. H. Di. William Henry Dines, F.R.S.
Director of Upper Air Investigation for the English Meteorological Office.
Kite-flying (in part).
W. H. F. Sir William H. Flower, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Flower, Sir W. H.
Kangaroo (in part).
W. L. F. Walter Lynwood Fleming, A.M., Ph.D.
Professor of History in Louisiana State University. Author of Documentary History of Reconstruction; &c.
Knights of the Golden Circle; Ku Klux Klan.
W. L.-W. Sir William Lee-Warner, M.A., K.C.S.I.
Member of Council of India. Formerly Secretary in the Political and Secret Department of the India Office. Author of Life of the Marquis of Dalhousie; Memoirs of Field-Marshal Sir Henry Wylie Norman; &c.
Jung Bahadur, Sir.
W. M. R. William Michael Rossetti.
See the biographical article: Rossetti, Dante G.
W. M. Ra. Sir William Mitchell Ramsay, LL.D., D.C.L.
See the biographical article, Ramsay, Sir W. M.
Jupiter (in part).
W. P. J. William Price James.
Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. High Bailiff, Cardiff County Court. Author of Romantic Professions; &c.
Kipling, Rudyard.
W. R. S. William Robertson Smith, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Smith, William Robertson.
Joel (in part);
Jubilee, Year of
 (in part).
W. W. F.* William Warde Fowler, M.A.
Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford. Sub-rector, 1881–1904. Gifford Lecturer, Edinburgh University, 1908. Author of The City-State of the Greeks and Romans; The Roman Festivals of the Republican Period; &c.
Juno; Jupiter (in part).
W. W. R.* William Walker Rockwell, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of Church History, Union Theological Seminary, New York.
Jerusalem, Synod of.
W. Y. S. William Young Sellar, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Sellar, W. Y.
Juvenal (in part).





Know Nothing Party.

  1. A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume